Mosquito-Borne Diseases

Malaria Mosquito
Anopheles quadrimaculatus
The Malaria Mosquito
Appearance

Large, dark-brown mosquito with four dense patches of scales on each wing.

Active Time

Most active at dusk and dawn.

Diseases

Chief vector of malaria in the eastern, central, and southern United States.

Breeding Sites

Permanent fresh water in sluggish streams, canals, ponds, and lakes containing surface-growing or emergent vegetation or floating debris.

Yellow Fever Mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow Fever Mosquito
Appearance

Small mosquitoes with a distinctive body pattern (shown left) and striped markings.

Active Time

Very aggressive. Often bites during the day.

Diseases

Can spread dengue fever, chikungunya and yellow fever, among other diseases.

Breeding Sites

Containers that hold water for seven days or more.

Asian Tiger Mosquito
Aedes albopictus (Asian Tiger)
Aedes Albopictus Mosquito
Appearance

Black mosquito with striking white markings on the body and legs.

Active Time

Very aggresive. Often bites during the day.

Diseases

Vector for Chikungunya, West Nile virus and heartworm, among others.

Breeding Sites

Containers that hold water for seven days or more.

The House Mosquito
Culex pipiens
The House Mosquito
Appearance

Light brown mosquitoes that lack distinctive markings on the proboscis and legs

Active Time

Most active at dusk and dawn.

Diseases

Recognized as the primary vector of St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile virus in the eastern United States.

Breeding Sites

Containers that hold water for seven days or more. Storm drains and catch basins. Septic seepage and other foul water

Chikungunya
Aedes albopictus Aedes aegypti
Chikungunya
About

Chikungunya is a viral dsiease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes. The virus does not often result in death, but the symptoms can be severe and disabling.

Vector Mosquitoes

Most often spread to people by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Asian Tiger) mosquitoes. They bite mostly during the daytime.

Symptoms

Symptoms usually being 3-7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito:

  • Fever
  • Nausea
  • Severe Joint Pain
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle Pain
  • Rash
  • Headache
Treatment

There is no cure for chikungunya. Treatment is focused on relieving the symptoms.

Dog Heartworm
Happy puppy in field
Dog Heartworm
About

Heartworm disease is a serious parasitic condition spread by mosquitoes. Heartworms live in the blood vessels and heart of infected pets. The parasite can cause injury to the lungs, arteries and heart.

Symptoms
  • Cough
  • Exercise Intolerance
  • Abnormal Lung Sounds
  • Enlargement of the Liver
  • Abnormal Heart Sounds
Treatment

If infected, your pet will likely need courses of steroids, heartworm preventive and antibiotics before he/she is ready to start the actual adult heartworm treatment. This could take up to 60 days.

Eastern Equine Encephalitis
Are you a mosquito breeder?
Eastern Equine Encephalitis
About

EEE is a rare disease that is caused by a virus spread by infected mosquitoes. EEE can cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis.) Most cases of EEE have been reported from Atlantic and Gulf Coast states and the Great Lakes region.

Vector Mosquitoes

Transmitted to humans by smoe Aedes, Coquillettidia, and Culex species capable of creating a "bridge" between infected birds and uninfected mammals.

Symptoms

It takes 4 to 10 days after the bite of an infected mosquito to develop symptoms of EEE. Severe cases begin with the sudden onset of headache, high fever, chills, and vomiting, followed by disorientation, seizures, and coma.

Treatment

There is no specific treatment for EEE, and it can be fatal. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses, and no effective anti-viral drugs have been discovered.

West Nile Virus
West Nile Virus
West Nile Virus
About

West Nile virus is an arbovirus most commonly spread by infected mosquitoes. West Nile virus can cause febrile illness, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord.)

Vector Mosquitoes

More than 60 mosquito species are known vectors of West Nile virus in the United States.

Symptoms

Most people do not develop any symptoms. Some will develop a fever, headache, body aches, joint pains, vomiting, diarrhea, or rash. People with certain medical conditions, such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension and kidney disease are at greater risk for serious illness. Severe cases can result in encephalitis or meningitis.

Treatment

No vaccine or specific antiviral treatments for West Nile virus infection are available. Over-the-counter medications can help manage symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be required.